I was curious if there is literature, specifically a chart, which shows the diameter a #301 vee bit at each depth in mm below a surface.

Example: if my #310 is 3mm into my stock, what is the resulting diameter left with x=0 y=0.
Subsequently, 5mm deep, what diameter and so on.
(Clear as mud?)

I suppose that is one way to figure the depth at a given diameter on the vee bit. However in practical terms of using a vee bit for a vcarve is the bit will plunge until the bit touches both sides of a line/lines.

You can limit the depth in a simple vcarve but unexpected results occur. On a simple vcarve the bit tracks down the center of the line/lines until the bit touches both sides. If you limit depth the vee bit will go to that depth but may not touch the sides of the line/lines.

Alternately you can do an advanced vcarve and limit depth. The flat endmill clears out to the specified depth and if the area is big enough it will be flat. Then the vee bit will go around the perimeter and make the vcarve.

A simple vcarve works well if you set use the bottom of material as maximum depth. That gives the best results for vee carving providing your material is thick enough to handle that. If you are vcarving very thin material you can go right through the material.